Verification vs Validation

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Verification vs Validation (hereinafter, the Lectio) is the lesson part of Manual Testing Essentials lesson that introduces its participants to manual testing concepts. This lesson belongs to the CNMCT Entrance section of the CNM Cyber Placement.


The predecessor lectio is Product Work Tests.


Some dictionaries treat two verbs, to verify and to validate as synonyms. Both likely include testing to ascertain the truth or authenticity of something. However, these verbs are not the same. In project management and systems engineering, verification and validation are separate processes.
Imagine that you parked your vehicle in a parking lot, while visiting some business. You know that the general public has to pay for parking, but that particular business covers parking fees for its customers. If the business validates your parking, your parking is free. The parking lot attendant may verify your receipt, but cannot validate. If your parking is not validated, you have to pay.
To verify a work product, one should make sure that the produced product matches its specifications and other requirements. To validate, one should make sure that product solves the problems it was supposed to solve.
When applied to a newly-built aircraft, verification is making sure that the aircraft is produced how it was designed. To validate aircraft's airworthiness, the aircraft must fly. The test flight would validate not only that the aircraft is built according to its specifications, but also that its specifications were right.
Simply put, verification answers the question whether the product is developed right, while validation answers the question whether the right product is developed.
For instance, verification of this very lectio that you are reading or listening right now would include finding its requirements and checking whether all of those requirements are met. However, only your understanding of the difference between verification and validation would validate it. If many learners fail to recognize the difference, the requirements must be revised and the lectio must be updated.
Acceptance testing may include both verification and validation. Internal stakeholders usually verify whether the developed product meets acceptance criteria before proposing the customer to validate their findings. Customers or their representatives usually validate whether they accept the product from its developers. Customer's validation may include verification as well.
However, third parties may run verification and/or validation as well.
First of all, the law may impose some restrictions. For instance, the customer may be ready to purchase some vaccine, but if this vaccine hasn't been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it cannot be sold in the United States. An essential part of FDA's approval process is validation of its useful and harmful effects.
Secondly, external stakeholders, especially independent third-parties, may run any or both processes while being invited by any party or when two parties dispute over the testing result.
Finally, some validations are contingent on end-users' usage and performance of the products.

Key terms

Verification, validation, acceptance testing, acceptance criteria, acceptance test


Write True or False:
  • Verification answers the question whether the right product is developed , by making sure it solves the problems it was supposed to solve.

The successor lectio is What Test Case Is.