Talent Management Quarter

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Talent Management Quarter (hereinafter, the Quarter) is a lecture introducing the learners to individuals development primarily through key topics related to worker productivity. The Quarter is the last of four lectures of Individuals Quadrivium, which is the fourth of seven modules of Septem Artes Administrativi (hereinafter, the Course). The Course is designed to introduce the learners to general concepts in business administration, management, and organizational behavior.


Individual Decisions Quarter is the predecessor lecture. In the enterprise planning series, the previous lecture is Operations Management Quarter.


  1. Talent management. Practice and a set of concepts based on that practice of management of a human being.
  2. Employee productivity. A performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness.
    • Group order ranking. An evaluation method that places employees into a particular classification, such as quartiles.
    • Individual ranking. An evaluation method that rank-orders employees from best to worst.
    • Shaping behavior. The process of guiding learning in graduated steps using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement.
  3. Job satisfaction. (1) A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics; (2) An employee's general attitude toward her or his job resulting from the difference between positive and negative feelings.
    • Job dissatisfaction. A negative feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.
  4. Professional ability. An individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
    • Reading skills. Skills that entail an understanding of written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents.
    • Writing skills. Skills that entail communicating effectively in text as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
    • Speaking skill. Skills that refer to the ability to communicate information and ideas in talking so others will understand.
    • Persuasion skill. Skills that enable a person to influence others to change their minds or behavior.
    • Political skill. The ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one's objectives.
    • Emotional labor. A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.
    • Resilience. An individual's ability to overcome challenges and turn them into opportunities.
    • Work readiness. The extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
  5. Administrative competence. Competence needed to undertake enterprise efforts.
  6. Conceptual ability. The ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.
  7. Political behavior. In enterprise, the way in which an enterprise associate acts or conducts oneself and which is not required as part of his or her formal role, but influences or attempts to influence the enterprise's behavior, especially distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the enterprise, or, vice versa, reduces or attempts to reduce the enterprise's influence on him or her.
  8. Dissatisfaction behavior. Political behavior of a worker resulted from his or her job dissatisfaction.
  9. Opportunistic behavior (opportunist behavior, opportunism). Political behavior of a worker resulted from his or her desire to get more control over the enterprise than he or she formally has.
  10. Opportunistic acquisition.
  11. Opportunistic conversion.
  12. Counterproductivity. Any intentional employee behavior that is potentially damaging to the organization or to individuals within organization. This behavior may include stealing, behaving aggressively toward coworkers, being late or absent, etc.
  13. Counterproductive opportunism.
    • Employee theft. Any unauthorized taking of company property by employees for their personal use.
  14. Organizational citizenship behavior. Discretionary behavior that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workspace, while not being part of employee's formal job requirements.
  15. Positive organizational scholarship. An area of organizational behavior research that concerns how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential.
    • Employee recognition program. A plan to encourage specific employee behaviors by formally appreciating specific employee contributions. In other words, an employee recognition program is personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.
    • Psychological contract. An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from an employee and vice versa.
  16. Workforce development. The process of developing workforce.


  1. Job-market actor. An actor on the job market.
  2. Workspace role.
  3. Human resources role.
  4. Referent. A person, system, or self against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity.
  5. Employment agent. One that runs an employment agency or as a business finds jobs for those seeking them or people to fill jobs that are open.
  6. Éminence grise (grey eminence, grey cardinal). A powerful decision-maker or adviser who operates "behind the scenes", or in a non-public or unofficial capacity.


  1. Political-behavior technique.
  2. Universal political technique. An established way of avoiding an action, blame, change, and/or decision.
  3. Opportunistic-behavior technique. An established way of avoiding an action, blame, change, and/or decision.
  4. Defensive-behavior technique. An established way of avoiding an action, blame, change, and/or decision.
    • Playing safe. A blame-avoidance technique based on the practice of evading situations that may reflect unfavorably. It includes taking on only projects with a high probability of success, having risky decisions approved by superiors, qualifying expressions of judgment, and taking neutral positions in conflicts.
    • Self-protection. A change-avoidance technique based on the practice of acting in ways to protect one's self-interest during change by guarding information or other resources.
    • Decision-avoidance tactic. A change-avoidance technique based on the practice of acting in ways to protect one's self-interest during change by guarding information or other resources.
  5. Responsibility prevention. Risk avoidance is changing the project plan to eliminate the risk or to protect the project objectives from its impact. It is a tool of the risk response planning process.
  6. Responsibility deferment. Risk mitigation seeks to reduce the probability and/or impact of a risk to below an acceptable threshold.
  7. Responsibility acceptance. This technique of the risk response planning process indicates that the project team has decided not to change the project plan to deal with a risk, or is unable to identify any other suitable response strategy.
    • Buffing. A blame-avoidance technique based on the practice of rigorously documenting activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness.
    • Justifying. A blame-avoidance technique based on the practice of developing explanations that lessen one's responsibility for a negative outcome and/or apologizing to demonstrate remorse, or both.
  8. Responsibility transference. Risk transference is seeking to shift the impact of a risk to a third party together with ownership of the response.
    • Buck passing (or passing the buck). An action-avoidance technique based on the practice of shifting or transferring the responsibility for the execution of a task or decision to someone else, as well as the act of attributing to another person or group, one's own responsibility. It is often used to refer to a strategy in power politics whereby a state tries to get another state to deter or possibly fight an aggressor state while it remains on the sidelines.
    • Scapegoating. A blame-avoidance technique based on the practice of placing the blame for a negative outcome on external factors that are not entirely blameworthy.
  9. Educational method. A method used in education.
  10. Forced comparison. Method of performance evaluation where an employee's performance is made in explicit comparison to others (e.g., an employee may rank third out of 10 employees in his or her work unit).


  1. Mental-model development. A group of human-learning theories such as Kohlberg's theory that describe the process of learning shared mental models through social experiences.
    • Preconventional level. The lower level of moral development in which a person's choice between right and wrong is based on personal consequences from outside forces or, in other words, is extrinsically motivated. This level consists of two stages: (a) sticking to rules to avoid punishment and (b) following the rules only when doing so is in the person's interest.
    • Conventional level. The middle level of moral development in which a person's choice between right and wrong relies on maintaining expected standards and living up to the expectations of others, or, in other words, is cooperatively motivated. This level consists of two stages: (a) living up to what the people close to the person expect and (b) maintaining conventional order by fulfilling obligations to which the person agrees.
    • Principled level. The upper level of moral development in which a person's choice between right and wrong is based on the person's own moral values apart from authority of the groups to which he or she belongs or society in general, or, in other words, is intrinsically motivated. This level consists of two stages: (a) valuing rights of others and upholding absolute values and rights regardless of the majority's opinion and (b) following self-chosen ethical principles even if they violate the law.
  2. Work Motivation Model. A framework for analyzing employment motivation that identifies three domains that contribute to the motivation to work. These domains include job itself, its compensation, and its fit to one's life.
  3. Job Characteristics Model. A framework for analyzing and designing jobs that identifies five core job dimensions, their interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes. These core job dimensions include skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback.
    • Skill variety. The degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talents.
    • Autonomy. The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
  4. Motivating potential score. A predictive index that suggests the motivating potential in a job based on core job dimensions.
  5. Means, motive, and opportunity. A common summation of the three aspects of an action; legally, that summation must be established before guilt can possibly be determined in a criminal proceeding.
  6. Paper trail. A series of documents providing written evidence of a sequence of events or the activities of a person or organization.
  7. Red tape. Excessive bureaucracy or adherence to rules and formalities, especially in public business.
  8. Cash remuneration. Any monetary reward that an employee receives in exchange for the service he or she performs for their employer and/or for his or her time. Usually, cash remuneration shall include a wage or salary and may include commissions, incentives, and/or bonuses.
    • Skill-based pay. A pay system that rewards employees for the job skills they can demonstrate.
    • Variable pay. A pay system in which an individual's compensation is contingent on performance.
    • Variable-pay program. A pay plan that bases a portion of an employee's pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance.
    • Merit-based pay plan. A pay plan based on performance appraisal ratings.
    • Pay-for-performance program. Variable compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure.
    • Piece-rate pay plan. A pay plan in which workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.
    • Bonus. A pay plan that rewards employees for recent performance rather than historical performance.
    • Profit-sharing plan. An organization-wide program that distributes compensation based on some established formula designed around a company's profitability.
  9. Work arrangement. An agreement to arrange work schedule, method, or load.
    • Compressed workweek. A workweek where employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week.
    • Flextime (or flexible work hours). A scheduling system in which employees are required to work a specific number of hours a week but are free to vary those hours within certain limits.
    • Telecommuting. Working remotely at least 2 days a week on a computer that is linked to the employer office.
    • Job sharing. (1) An arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a full-time job; (2) The practice of having 1).
  10. Employee benefit (or fringe benefit, perquisite, or, sometimes, perk). Various types of non-monetary benefits provided by an employer to an employee in addition to his or her cash remuneration.
    • Retirement plan.
    • Health insurance.
    • Life insurance.
    • Disability insurance.
    • Vacation.
    • Vesting. When an employee of a company gains rights to stock options and contributions provided by the employer. The rights typically gain value (vest) over time until they reach their full value after a pre-determined amount of time. For example, if an employee was offered 200 stock unites over 10 years, 20 units would vest each year. This gives employees an incentive to perform well and stay with the company for a longer period of time.
    • Employee stock ownership plan. A company-established benefits plan in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices, as part of their benefits.
    • Flexible benefits. A benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation.
  11. Work-life program. General or specific arrangements that an employer offers to an employee in order to accommodate his or her both work and life. Most often, those programs may include work arrangements.


Communication Quarter is the successor lecture. In the enterprise planning series, the next lecture is Relationship Management Quarter.


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See also